Book publishers needed only to listen to Jeff Bezos himself to have their fears stoked. Amazon’s founder repeatedly suggested he had little reverence for the old 'gatekeepers' of the media, whose business models were forged during the analogue age and whose function it was to review content and then subjectively decide what the public got to consume. This was to be a new age of creative surplus, where it was easy for anyone to create something, find an audience, and allow the market to determine the proper economic reward. ‘Even well meaning gatekeepers slow innovation,’ Bezos wrote in his 2011 letter to shareholders. ‘When a platform is self-service, even the improbable ideas can get tried, because there’s no expert gatekeeper ready to say that will never work! And guess what — many of those improbable ideas do work, and society is the beneficiary of that diversity.